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《 Marlboro Boys 》

這批照片,有些人看了定會搖頭皺眉,並對印尼政府寬鬆的菸草管制感到不可思議。

根據統計,印尼有超過六成的成年男性是會固定買菸的癮君子,

這讓加拿大攝影師 Michelle Siu 當初得知此事時感到相當震驚。

就像世界上其他國家一樣,菸草公司在印尼這擁有大量抽菸人口的國家獲得了相當可觀的利潤。

當西方許多國家抽菸人口不斷下降的同時,有些國家的抽菸人口卻不降反升,

在印尼,抽菸的年齡層更不斷下滑。

 

《Marlboro’s Boys》紀錄了這些臉龐猶稚嫩的孩子們手夾著香菸,吞雲吐霧的迷醉模樣,

這些孩子俐落的點菸,一吸一吐間,就跟抽菸多年的老菸槍那樣熟練。

抽菸,在印尼的文化中有著根深蒂固的發展過程,國家經濟有很大一部分仰賴著菸草產業,

許多印尼人靠著種植菸草維生,從小便接觸菸草這散發著獨特氣味的植物;

政客依附其下獲利,印尼政府不願也幾乎無力管制。

街上到處都可以看到香菸廣告,走沒幾步就可以看到販售香菸的鋪子,

在公車上抽菸更是稀鬆平常的事情。

整個印尼在經濟、政治和文化上都與菸草生產/消費緊密連結,這是個相當複雜的議題。

作為一位自覺有責任將看到的事物紀錄下來並傳遞出去的攝影師,儘管個人力量微薄,

但 Siu 認為他必須以鏡頭拍下這正在發生的一切。

 

▼看下去年紀只有四、五歲的Dihan Muhamad每天抽兩包煙,其母親在旁喂哺母乳。

Dihan Muhamad, who used to smoke up to two packs of cigarettes a day before cutting down, poses for a photo as he smokes while his mother breast feeds his younger brother at their home in the village near the town of Garut, Indonesia on February 10, 2014.
Dihan Muhamad, who used to smoke up to two packs of cigarettes a day before cutting down, poses for a photo as he smokes while his mother breast feeds his younger brother at their home in the village near the town of Garut, Indonesia on February 10, 2014.
Dihan Muhamad, who used to smoke up to two packs of cigarettes a day before cutting down, poses for a photo as he smokes in his home in a village near the town of Garut, Indonesia on February 10, 2014.
Dihan Muhamad, who used to smoke up to two packs of cigarettes a day before cutting down, poses for a photo as he smokes in his home in a village near the town of Garut, Indonesia on February 10, 2014.

煙霧裏的稚嫩臉孔

五歲的Azka Mubarok在家中吸煙。

Five-year-old Ardian Azka Mubarok smokes at his home in Garut, Indonesia on March 27, 2015. (Photo By: Michelle Siu)
Five-year-old Ardian Azka Mubarok smokes at his home in Garut, Indonesia on March 27, 2015. (Photo By: Michelle Siu)

Ilham Muhamad 五歲開始抽煙,現已輟學。沒錢買香煙時的他會向祖母討錢,祖母不給就發脾氣。

Illham Muhamad, who has smoked since he was five years old, poses for a photo as he slowly inhales his first cigarette of the day at his grandmother's home in Indonesia on February 10, 2014. He does not attend school and if his grandmother refuses to give him money to buy cigarettes he will cry and throw fits.
Illham Muhamad, who has smoked since he was five years old, poses for a photo as he slowly inhales his first cigarette of the day at his grandmother’s home in Indonesia on February 10, 2014. He does not attend school and if his grandmother refuses to give him money to buy cigarettes he will cry and throw fits.

Cecep 在清真廟中露宿,以在巴士上唱歌為生。

Cecep poses for a photo as he smokes on February 10, 2014. He is currently sleeping at a mosque and singing in buses to make money. (Photo By: Michelle Siu)
Cecep poses for a photo as he smokes on February 10, 2014. He is currently sleeping at a mosque and singing in buses to make money. (Photo By: Michelle Siu)

三年級小學生Ilham Hadi 四歲開始抽煙,身穿校服的他在睡房裡抽煙,

Ilham Hadi, who has smoked up to two packs a day and began when he was four years old, poses for a photo wearing his third grade uniform while smoking in his bedroom in a village near the town of Sukabumi, Indonesia on February 14, 2014.
Ilham Hadi, who has smoked up to two packs a day and began when he was four years old, poses for a photo wearing his third grade uniform while smoking in his bedroom in a village near the town of Sukabumi, Indonesia on February 14, 2014.

看下去似是高小學生的Andika Prasetyo在網吧外面抽煙。

Andika Prasetyo, who smokes about a pack a day, has a cigarette outside an internet cafe where children are smoking inside in Depok, West Java, Indonesia on February 15, 2014.
Andika Prasetyo, who smokes about a pack a day, has a cigarette outside an internet cafe where children are smoking inside in Depok, West Java, Indonesia on February 15, 2014.

隨著已發展國家的公眾健康意識提高,以及政府對煙草業的打壓,不少大型的煙草公司如Marlboro(萬寶路)逐漸將業務拓展至發展中國家如印尼,加上當地政府與香煙業關係密切,缺乏公眾健康的政府宣傳,香煙的供應量十分高,價格又便宜(一包只需要一美金),令印尼成為世界上最高煙民比例的國家之一。而Michelle Siu的攝影系列《 Marlboro Boys 》,就是希望喚起人們對於印尼煙民小孩的關注,以及道出官商勾結對人民所造成的影響。

煙霧裏的稚嫩臉孔

對於現在的我們而言,香煙與小孩兩者雖然好像風馬牛不相及,但原來兩者在兩個世紀前的關係是相當密切的。直至到第一次世界大戰前,小孩子很早期就接觸香煙──他們幫忙栽種、收割香草,將香草製成香煙,之後就拿著香煙到街上販賣等等,香煙跟他們的生活和生計息息相關。既然兩者關係這麼密切,吸煙對於他們來說是自然不過的事。事實上,早期的煙草廣告上並不是出現那些恐怖的致癌畫面,而是出現可愛的小男孩和小女孩。

煙霧裏的稚嫩臉孔

十九世紀,香煙公司會以香煙製作人自己的孩子賣廣告

煙霧裏的稚嫩臉孔

右:「沒有香煙的茶會就不完全。」

煙霧裏的稚嫩臉孔

在欣賞煙圈的小女孩復古照片

在欣賞煙圈的小女孩

煙霧裏的稚嫩臉孔二十世紀出現不少關於小孩吸煙的報道。

©資料來源/參考: LensCulture Cigarhistory Info
©圖片來源/參考: Michelle Siu Freelance Photographer – Marlboro Boys

Michelle Siu Freelance Photographer – Marlboro Boys

MARLBORO BOYS. INDONESIA (2014-2015). Indonesia’s relationship with tobacco is complex. Cheap cigarettes, ubiquitous advertising, a powerful lobby with …

 


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